Christ Church Boat Club is the college boat club of Christ Church, Oxford, a large and prestigious College and a constituent part of the University of Oxford. It exists, as it has for over two centuries, to provide rowing and competition facilities and fellowship for undergraduate and graduate men and women studying up at the 'House'.
Want to get involved with Christ Church Boat Club?
If you’re new to rowing, email:
If you’ve rowed before, please email the Men's or Women's Captains for more information:
Men's Captain: Jacob Williams firstname.lastname@example.org
Women's Captain: India Marsden email@example.com
Head Coach: Andrew Nelder firstname.lastname@example.org
Come and talk to some of our current rowers, meet the committee and the coaches, try out rowing for the first time and sign up for sessions.
New to rowing?
Whether you're just arriving to Christ Church this year, or have been thinking about trying the classic Oxford sport for a while, we would love to hear from you! Rowing is an amazing way to be part of the largest and most successful sports club at Christ Church, to get fit, to meet lots of new people and to enjoy great social events.
The best thing about learning to row in Michaelmas Term is that everyone is a novice – so you don’t need to worry if you haven’t sat in a boat before or aren’t that fit! At the end of Michaelmas, novice crews from all colleges (over 1,000 people) compete in Christ Church Regatta.
We are always on the look-out for new coxes (a great chance to enjoy all of the perks of rowing with none of the hard work!), and open to welcoming new members throughout the year.
Every year, a number of experienced rowers and coxes join our senior squads to compete at the highest collegiate level. To date, Christ Church has won more Summer Eights Headships than any other college - 33, as well as winning 13 Torpids Headships.
For the most experienced and ambitious, there are, of course, the Varsity squads which aim to compete against Cambridge – OUBC (openweight men), OUWBC (openweight women), OULRC (lightweight men) and OUWLRC (lightweight women). Training for the squads commences in September and continues until late March/early April, when the Boat Race takes place over the Championship Course on the Tideway in London. From 2015, the OUWBC will race on the same day, over the same course. OULRC and OUWLRC take part in the Henley Boat Races, over a 2,000m course in Henley.
After the Varsity Races, Blues return to their colleges to compete in Summer Eights. Christ Church is extremely supportive of anyone wishing to trial for the University squads. It has produced more Blues than any other boat club, and granted use of the dark blue blades to the very first OUBC crew – a tradition which carries through to this day. The club has also won more Henley Royal Regatta trophies than any other college, and aims to send crews to this event each year.
Why row for Christ Church?
- For the experience: Provided you work hard, rowing for Christ Church is a unique opportunity to compete alongside very accomplished and experienced athletes. You can improve yourself and reach a high level even if you’ve never rowed before.
- For the competition: Racing in Torpids and Summer Eights (the annual inter-collegiate ‘bumps’ regattas) is an unforgettable experience.
- For the social scene: Crew dates, end-of-term Boat Club Dinners, nights out – there are always opportunities to socialise and meet new people!
- For the structure: Many of our athletes find that rowing gives structure to their day and helps them to focus better on their academic work – our rowers tend to do very well in their degrees.
- For your fitness: Rowing will improve your cardiovascular fitness and strength.
- For your future: Rowing is well valued by employers, as it demonstrates a range of skills such team work, commitment and determination.
‘You shouldn’t row because…’ – debunking the myths
- You have to be over 6’ and built like a tank: Hard work and technical ability are always the most important aspect, for both male and female rowers. Lightweight rowing has its own place in the Varsity programme (see above) and lightweights frequently feature in heavyweight Varsity crews.
- It will absorb all your time: Rowing is organised around lectures, labs and tutorials, and there are commitment levels to suit everyone, whether they want to aim for the First Eight or enjoy competing in the lower boats. If you’re worried about the workload for a specific subject, get in touch with the captains, who will put you in contact with someone doing the same subject.
- You will have to wake up at 5am every morning: Not if you’re a novice (unless you want to!). In their first term of rowing, we offer everyone the option of rowing at times to suit them. For the senior squads, there are usually no more than two early weekday morning sessions.
Boat Club Committee 2022–23
Sebastian Hall, Adam Libby, Akhila Natarajan, Eloise Rydell
Captain of Coxes
Harriet Anderson, Nikhil Karun
Boat Club Constitution
The purposes of Christ Church Boat Club (hereinafter referred to as the Boat Club) shall be to promote the sport of rowing among members of Christ Church (herein alternatively referred to as the House), to represent the House in rowing competitions and to organise the provision of facilities for such purposes. This Constitution is intended to govern the rules and procedures for the smooth functioning of the Boat Club consistent with, and within, the regulations of the House,and subject to the oversight of the Christ Church Rowing Management Committee (as hereinafter defined).
The ambition and focus of the Boat Club is to be the dominant force for college rowing in Oxford.
For the period during which the House and Kellogg College agree to share the House’s rowing facilities this Constitution binds all members of Kellogg College who are members of the Boat Club within the meaning of A2, 3 and 4 below.
- The membership of the Boat Club consists of ordinary members only. Ordinary members (hereinafter “members” or “member”) are required to pay an annual subscription in three equal instalments, payable at the beginning of each term, in return for which they have a right to participate in the Boat Club, attend General Meetings and vote, subject to the terms of, and in accordance with, this Constitution.
- Anyone who has represented the Boat Club in any organised rowing competition on the Isis, or elsewhere, during the previous twelve months, and who is a member of no other college boat club, shall be deemed to be a member of the Boat Club.
- Any resident member of the House or of Kellogg College who is not a member of any other college boat club, and who has represented the University in any rowing competition during the previous twelve months, shall be deemed to be a member of the Boat Club.
- All resident members of the House or of Kellogg College who have been Officers of the Boat Club as defined in section C during the previous twelve months shall be deemed to be members of the Boat Club.
- The twelve months’ qualification criterion referred to in A.2, A.3 and A.4 will be re-assessed prior to each General Meeting.
- The amount of the subscription payable in termly instalments by members for the next academic year shall be determined by the Annual General Meeting, following a recommendation from the Committee and liaison with the Senior Treasurer. The Senior Treasurer can decide, in her absolute discretion, to waive a member’s subscription or part of it.
- All members will act in accordance with the rules, policies and procedures of Christ Church currently in force at the time of their membership which are relevant to the activities of the Boat Club, including, but not limited to, the Christ Church Harassment Policy. A breach by a member of any of those rules, policies and procedures is likely to result in termination of membership.
- A member responsible for, involved in or encouraging any form of disruptive activity or behaviour will automatically forfeit his or her membership.
- All members are deemed as a condition of membership to subscribe to, observe and be bound by the terms of this Constitution.
- All members shall satisfy the Committee that they have made themselves aware of all regulations concerning the use of equipment, and of all regulations of those bodies to which the Boat Club is affiliated including rules of the river. All competing members shall in addition have completed a Swim Test to the satisfaction of an accredited British Rowing coach.
B. The Christ Church Rowing Management Committee (“CCRMC”)
- The governance of the Boat Club, as distinct from its sporting activities and administrative affairs, is overseen by CCRMC.
- CCRMC represents the interests of the College, and through the Senior Treasurer, the Governing Body, in the Boat Club. Those interests include ensuring the Boat Club reflects the objectives and ethos of the House, is financially stable, well run, and successful, and complies with all statutory, or other regulatory requirements.
- The members of the CCRMC are the Senior Treasurer, a representative of the Development Office, a representative of the Boat Club Society, the Director of Rowing and the President.The Head Coach and the Captains are permanently co-opted members but will not have a vote. Other persons may be requested to attend meetings of the CCRMC.
- CCRMC is governed by its own rules. Without prejudice thereto, it is responsible for the management of and development of rowing at the House. This includes furthering the House’s rowing objectives, setting rowing policy and initiatives, recruitment of coaches, all rowing-related personnel issues, health and safety, the welfare of members, and supervising the Boat Club’s activities to ensure they help meet the House’s rowing objectives. Where appropriate it will assist and support the Boat Club Committee with administrative matters relevant to its remit.
- Any dispute as to membership and non-observance of this Constitution which is not resolved upon by the Boat Club Committee shall be decided upon by the CCRMC which will fully and finally determine the dispute by means of any outcome and in whatever manner, in its absolute discretion, it sees fit.
- The CCRMC has the power unilaterally, in its absolute discretion, to terminate or confirm the termination of membership of any member responsible for, involved in or encouraging any form of disruptive activity or behaviour.
C. The Officers of the Boat Club
The Boat Club shall have the following Officers: the President, the Men's and Women’s Captains, (together “the Captains”), and the Secretary.
D. The Boat Club Committee (“the Committee”)
- The Committee shall consist of the President, the Captains, the Secretary, and the Senior Treasurer, who is an ex-officio member. The Committee shall co-opt such other persons as it may, from time to time, in its discretion invite. Such persons will not be counted in a quorum or entitled to vote at Committee meetings.
The Committee shall appoint:-
(i) a Captains’ Committee, which will oversee day to day rowing matters;
(ii) a Secretary’s Committee, which will oversee the administrative and social aspects of the Boat Club, as further particularized below.
- The Committee shall manage the Boat Club and conduct its affairs in accordance with this Constitution, with help from the Captains’ and the Secretary’s Committees. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, with the exception of any matter falling within B6 which shall remain the preserve of the CCRMC, the Committee will endeavour to determine any dispute as to membership, and any non-observance of this Constitution, including any breach or purported breach of A7, and it will have the power to suspend or terminate membership. In the event the Committee is unable or unwilling to determine such dispute, it will refer it to CCRMC to be fully and finally determined in accordance with B5. The CCRMC may assume jurisdiction over the dispute without such a referral.
- The Committee shall meet during 0th or 1st week of each term. The Secretary shall be responsible for informing all members of the Committee of the time and venue of the meeting at least one week in advance.
- Committee meetings will be chaired by the President.
- Members of the Committee shall have a single vote with the exception of the Senior Treasurer who shall not be entitled to vote at Committee meetings. The Senior Treasurer is entitled to veto any resolution passed by the Committee which in her/his absolute discretion relates to her/his functions and duties set out in K below, in which event that resolution becomes null and void.
- The quorum for a valid Committee meeting will be three Committee members including the the Senior Treasurer unless she/he has waived attendance. Resolutions put to the vote will be passed on a show of hands by a simple majority.
- Committee meetings shall be accurately minuted by the Secretary. The minutes shall be sent out to the Boat Club within a week of the meeting.
E. The President
- The President shall chair meetings of the Boat Club and its Committee.
- The President shall liaise with the CCRMC on any matter relating to the running and organization of the Boat Club, as seen fit, after consulting the Head Coach, or as requested to do so by the CCRMC, and shall forthwith refer any matter arising outside that competence which may require a decision, to the CCRMC.
- The President shall be responsible for liaison with the Senior Treasurer and with the Christ Church Development Office on a regular basis.
- The President shall represent the Boat Club within the House and Kellogg College
- The President shall award Blades for Torpids and for Eights to any Head crew and to any crew that, on each of the four days, gains at least one bump and is not bumped.
- The President shall maintain and update the President’s Handbook and make it available to his/her successor.
- The President, or one of the Captains, shall attend all meetings of the Boat Club Society Committee
F. The Captains
- The Captains shall supervise the work of the Captains’ Committee, to facilitate the purposes of the Boat Club.
- The Captains shall operate through the Captains’ Committee in organizing crew selection and all land and water based training sessions.
- The Captains shall operate through the Captains’ Committee to decide which men’s and women’s crews respectively may train and compete in which boats.They have to ensure that all members who are rowing or intending to row have completed a swimtest.
- The Captains shall maintain and update their respective Captain’s Handbooks and make them available to their successors.
G. The Secretary
- The Secretary shall be responsible for general administration of the Boat Club, including giving notice of meetings, the taking of accurate minutes at Committee and General Meetings, the keeping of records and helping to ensure, in close liaison with the Senior Treasurer, that members comply with the qualifications for membership and pay their due subscriptions in a timely manner.
- The Secretary will liaise with the Senior Treasurer on the state of the membership on a regular basis and report to the President prior to each General Meeting.
The Secretary shall be responsible for supervising the Secretary’s Committee, in order to:
(i) ensure that information about the activities of the Boat Club is made available to members via the Boat Club website;
(ii) ensure that members whose purchases of Club clothing and photographs are charged to battels, are charged correctly;
(iii) organize, in conjunction with the President and the Senior Treasurer, college-led Boat Club social events.
- The Secretary shall be responsible for arranging publicity around college and via the JCR of competitions on the Isis in which the Boat Club is involved.
- The Secretary shall be responsible for taking minutes of all Committee meetings, the Annual General Meeting and other General Meetings (in the event of electing Officers, minutes must only consist of attendance and the questions asked of the nominees for any position) and making them available to all Boat Club members within one week of the meeting.
- The Secretary shall ask members who are leaving the House to join the Boat Club Society.
- The Secretary shall maintain and update the Secretary’s Handbook and make it available to their successors.
H. The Captains’ Committee
The Captains’ Committee will consist of:
(i) The Captains;
(ii) Vice Captains for each crew, to be nominated by the Captains in conjunction with the Head Coach and assistant coaches;
(iii) the Regatta Captain, appointed by the Committee for the Michaelmas term only;
(iv) Novice Captains, if appointed by the Captains, for the Michaelmas term only;
(v) Other.members invited by the Captains.
(vi) the Head Coach will be an ex-officio member of the Captains’ Committee.
- The Captains’ Committee is responsible, in consultation with the Head Coach and assistant coaches, for all on-the-water matters, land training, and, subject to the Head Coach’s final determination, crew selection.
- The Regatta Captain shall be responsible for the organisation and safe running of the Christ Church Regatta in consultation with the Head Coach and the Senior Treasurer.
- The Regatta Captain shall keep the President and Senior Treasurer regularly apprised of the progress of organising the Regatta and before entries open, will obtain the Senior Treasurer’s confirmation that the House has insured the Regatta.
- All decisions regarding racing and safe conduct shall remain at all times the responsibility of the Regatta Captain. He/She will liaise with the Head Coach to ensure the safety of the Regatta.
- The Regatta Captain shall maintain and update the Regatta Handbook and make it available to their successor.
- The Men’s and Women’s Novice Captains shall be responsible for the training and organisation of novices in Michaelmas term and report to the Captains’ Committee accordingly. They shall ensure that all members of the Boat Club who are novices have completed a Swim Test before they row on the water.
I. The Secretary’s Committee
The Secretary’s Committee will consist of:
(i) The Secretary
(ii) The Social Secretary
(iii) An Access Officer
The Secretary’s Committee shall be responsible for
(i) the maintenance of the Boat Club website, including updating the Archives of race results and the Photo Gallery.
(ii) updating the Boat Club social media with race results (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc).
(iii) recruitment drives;
(iv) organising non-College led events for Boat Club members;
(v) organizing, subject to I.3. below, crew table and Boat Club dinners during Christ Church Regatta, Torpids and Eights.
- Before liaising with the Hall Manager for any event in hall, the Social Secretary shall first obtain permission from the Senior Treasurer to request the provision of the relevant crew tables.
J. Water Safety Adviser
- The Head Coach will be the Water Safety Adviser.
- The Committee will liaise as necessary with the Head Coach operating in the capacity of Water Safety Adviser.
K. The Senior Treasurer
- The Senior Treasurer shall be responsible for the long-term interests of the Boat Club, for representing the interests of the Boat Club to the Governing Body of the House, and for informing the Committee of decisions of Governing Body affecting the functioning of the Boat Club.
- The Senior Treasurer shall be responsible for the financial affairs of the Boat Club including the payment of regular expenses. He or she shall consult the Committee regarding priorities for capital and other expenditure.
- The interpretation of this Constitution will be the prerogative of the Senior Treasurer.
L. Terms of Office
- All Officers shall serve a term of one year following their election.
- Subject to the provisions of this Constitution,Officers shall be eligible for nomination for any post in years following their first period of office.
- Officers may resign at any stage during their period of office by expressing their wish in writing to the Senior Treasurer. The Committee shall nominate a replacement for the remainder of the period of office without the need for such a nomination to be ratified by a full meeting of the Boat Club.
- Any Officer rusticated, sent down, or otherwise out of residence for a period in excess of two weeks of term time shall be deemed to have resigned.
- All Officers must endeavour to be available throughout the Christ Church Regatta. They must be marshalling or otherwise present for at least one full day of the Regatta, and for morning set-up and evening take-down of the Regatta equipment any day requested by the Regatta Captain. Reasonable reasons for absence can be granted by the Regatta Captain, but may include, though are not limited to: immovable and obligatory academic appointments, ill health, being out of Oxford.
M. Election of Officers, Removal of Officers
- Any member of the Boat Club is eligible to stand for election to any office with the exception of the Presidency which will be open only to resident members of the House.
- All Officers of the Boat Club shall be elected, by those members who are entitled to vote, at the Annual General Meeting of the Boat Club, held in Trinity term.
- Each member of the Boat Club who is a resident member of the House or of Kellogg College, is entitled to vote to elect Officers in accordance with this Constitution and in particular the processes set out in Annexe 1 hereto, provided such member has paid all termly subscriptions which are due, prior to the Annual General Meeting at which such election is to take place. Such member shall have one, non-transferrable, vote.
- The procedure for election of Officers is as set out in Annexe 1.
- The procedure for removal of Officers is as set out in Annexe 2.
N. General Meetings
- An Annual General Meeting shall be held each year in the Seventh or Eighth Week of Trinity Term. There shall also be General Meetings held in Seventh or Eighth week of Michaelmas and Hilary Terms.
- All members of the Boat Club are entitled to attend the General Meetings. A member whose subscription is due but not paid at the time of the General Meeting is not entitled to vote.
- At least one week's notice of the time and venue of a General Meeting shall be posted to members by the Secretary via email and on the Boat Club’s website. The Senior Treasurer shall also be given one week’s notice of the time and venue of General Meetings.
- The procedure for General Meetings is as set out in Annexe 3.
O. The Constitution
- Changes to this Constitution may be proposed and debated at a General Meeting in the normal way but require a majority of those members present in person in order to be passed, of whom three-quarters must be resident members of the House.
- Any changes to the Constitution so resolved upon will be provisional only. CCRMC will have the power in its absolute discretion to veto, amend or defer any changes to this Constitution resolved upon by a General Meeting which affect its remit.
- The Senior Treasurer shall have the power fully and finally to determine all matters regarding the interpretation of this Constitution as amended from time to time in accordance with O4 below.
- Subject to O2, this Constitution shall come into force upon ratification by the members of the Boat Club in the manner aforesaid, and by the CCRMC.
Annexe 1. Election of Officers
- Candidates must be proposed and seconded by members of the Boat Club who have paid all the appropriate subscriptions which are due. The President may not propose or second anyone.
- The Secretary shall be responsible for inviting nominations from qualifying members, and notify the date of the election, no less than three weeks before the Annual General Meeting and shall receive and hold in confidence (except to other members of the Committee) all nominations.
- Nominations shall close not less than five days before the Annual General Meeting.
- The Secretary shall advertise the Meeting not less than five days beforehand via email and Social media, with a list of all candidates. .
- The candidates will each be given a maximum of three minutes to present themselves. After all the candidates have spoken the Chair will open the floor for questions. There is no time limit for the question section. Questions must be addressed to all candidates.
- If a member is not able to come to the Annual General Meeting, they may appeal in writing to the Secretary not less than five days before the Meeting. If the Committee deems there to be a valid reason for the absence of the member they may be given a vote by proxy to be counted with the other votes. Reasonable reasons for absence may include, though are not limited to: immovable and obligatory academic appointments, and being out of Oxford. If any members are granted a vote by proxy the candidates shall be informed that they may, but are not obliged to, write a summary of their policies in a black and white (or blue and white) text-only document with a maximum of 300 words. There are no other requirements for formatting or style of the text in these documents. These documents will then be circulated to all members of the Boat Club by the Secretary at least 24 hours prior to the General Meeting.
- In the case of there being only one candidate for any post, their election shall be ratified by a simple majority of a show of hands.
- In cases where there is more than one candidate for any post, the Secretary shall prepare be- forehand ballot papers for a secret vote, with the names of the candidates in alphabetical order and an option to vote for Re-Open Nominations (RON). The votes shall be counted by the Commit tee in the Annual General Meeting. Whoever has the most votes, with or without a majority, shall be declared elected. The ballot papers shall be available afterwards for inspection by all candidates.
- Those permitted to vote by proxy must vote by email to the President on the day of the election. The President must make anonymised print-outs of the email to be inspected by all candidates alongside ballot papers in the meeting. They may remove from the email all text that they do not deem necessary to clarify the direction of voting.
- In event of a tie, all outgoing Committee members who have not resigned or been removed from their post, and are not standing for that position, will vote separately. Voting will be done by show of hands and the person with the most votes is deemed to be elected, with or without a majority. If that vote is also a tie then the outgoing Officer whose position is the subject of election holds the casting vote.
- If a Committee member is standing for re-election and the vote for that position is a tie, the President will hold the casting vote for that position. If it is for the role of President, the Secretary will hold the casting vote.
- In any case where a candidate alleges there has been unfair practice which results in that candidate not being elected, the candidate may appeal in writing to the Senior Treasurer. Where the Senior Treasurer feels an election process relating to that candidate has not been conducted fairly she may overturn the result and order a new election to be undertaken in respect of all candidates nominated for that Officer’s position..
- The Chair of the meeting must conduct elections beginning with the most contested positions. Candidates who were not successful in their original application may apply again, in the meeting, for the later positions.
- Where a candidate is not ratified or a result of RON is reached, the President can choose to re- open nominations at the General Meeting if one or more, previously unnominated, candidates wish to stand. This can be voted on by show of hands in the absence of the candidates. Otherwise, the outgoing and incoming Committees can decide whether to hold a new meeting or to leave the position unfilled. Candidates previously defeated by RON may not run for the position again in that academic year.
- In the event that a qualifying member wishes to fill an unfilled position, and notifies the Committee accordingly, the Committee shall hold an emergency Committee Meeting to vote on the candidate. The secretary shall advertise the candidate and the position to all members of the Boat Club not less than five days before the Committee Meeting, during which any other member may apply for the position up until the time of the meeting. Voting in this case shall be by simple majority of Committee members through raising of hands, and in the absence of the candidates. The Committee may hold interviews or ask for a summary of policies from the candidate or candidates as they deem necessary. Where a position has been filled in this way the Officer’s term in office ends at the end of the academic year (or end of Michaelmas term for Regatta and Novice Captains).
Annexe 2. Removal of Officers
If a motion of no confidence in an Officer, signed by at least sixteen members of the Boat Club who are qualified to vote, shall be submitted to the Secretary (or if the Officer concerned is the Secretary, to the President), the President will consider the motion and if he or she considers it needs to be taken further, will call a meeting of the Committee at which the Officer concerned is asked to explain why he or she should not be required to resign. The Committee will thereafter decide on the matter.
Annexe 3. Procedure at General Meetings
- Any qualifying member of the Boat Club may submit a motion for debate at a General Meeting by informing the Secretary of the motion in writing in advance of the meeting.
- The proposing member must present their motion to the meeting. The Chair of the meeting must then request points of information from the present members, which the proposer may answer. When all points of information have been addressed, the chair must open the floor for debate with a request for a present member to speak against the motion. When debate has been exhausted it is at the discretion of the Chair of the meeting to move to vote.
- Voting on motions at the Michaelmas and Hilary General Meetings is by a simple majority on a show of hands. A tie counts as a fail of the motion. It is at the discretion of the President to request and organise voting by anonymised ballot papers (as in the election of Officers) if it is deemed more appropriate for a certain motion.
- Only members present in person at the Michaelmas and Hilary General Meetings may cast a vote. All members can, however, send a statement on one or many of the proposed motions to the Secretary, which shall be read out by a present member that they nominate. If they choose not to nominate a reader, the statement shall be read out by the Secretary. The statement shall be read out after points of information have been raised, and the meeting has moved to debate on the motion in question.
- In the event nobody speaks against the motion at the opening of debate, and no statement has been submitted against the motion, the motion passes automatically.
- In the event that no motions have been submitted 3 days in advance of the General Meeting in Michaelmas and Hilary terms, the Secretary and/or President may cancel the meeting.
- The Secretary, or, in his or her absence, a member nominated by the Secretary must make accurate minutes of the General Meetings and make them available to all boat club members within a week of the meeting.
Appendix. Note on Officer’s Handbooks
The idea of an Officer’s Handbook has evolved from the difficulty new Officers have had each year when their predecessor has not been available to pass on the knowledge gained by having a year in the role. Ideally, these documents should be structured as follows.
• Main duties/responsibilities on a regular basis
• ‘Timeline’ – important events throughout the year (term for Regatta)
• Useful information/advice
• Contacts/phone numbers
It is not intended that these documents should be overly long – and they are up to each outgoing Officer to modify as they see fit. The important thing is that they should accurately reflect the experience and ideas of the individual and the knowledge that they have found useful from previous years.